One of the invited experts is the Member of Swedish Parliament Mathias Sundin who is involved in the Tax Committee and the Finance Committee. The specialist has co-founded a revolutionary technological organization Warp Institute and joined financial company Goobit. At the event, the speaker will analyse the power of decentralized systems, evaluating its long-term strenghts.
Head of Digital and Innovation at Landshypotek Bank Merete Salmeling will deliver the presentation, too. She will explain how DLT can be integrated into the real estate, and what advantages it brings.
President of Blockchain Alliance Europe Tanja Bivic Plankar will join the conference as well. Being an initial coin offerings expert, she will share knowledge about ICOs, describe recent innovations in the token sale sphere and talk about the regulatory framework.
Regulatory and legal challenges coming with innovations will also be discussed by Dr. Guenther Dobrauz-Saldapenna – Partner & Leader PwC Legal Switzerland. The speaker is a lawyer, VC investor, and banking specialist. He provides business consultations and has already written 10 books discovering innovative processes, money and technology.
Use an opportunity to meet leading DLT specialists, ask questions and learn new topical information about the blockchain industry at first hand at the conference!
The practice of providing health services is moving away from the traditional clinician centrist practice model. The prevailing line of thought revolves around the patient being placed firmly in the center of the process. The health system in New Zealand like most economies around the world is straining under resource constraints. Policy, Funding, Players, Technology, Customers and Accountability – These are the factors listed by Forbes as being the forces that either drive or kill innovation. Historically, healthcare silos have been poor adopters of horizontal innovation. The same can be expected with blockchain technology. The seemingly complex nature of the technology makes it a hard sell. The inescapable rhetoric behind the benefits of blockchain are however, easier to comprehend: data security, decentralization leading to cost reduction, provenance and putting the onus back into patient’s hands. So, how can blockchain help New Zealand’s healthcare system? Several questions arise when initiating a discussion about Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT):
It is the proverbial ambulance-at-the-bottom-of-the-cliff scenario. Healthcare is meandering towards a population health data science model. It is here that blockchain finds one of its many potentials. The government recently announced a review of New Zealand’s health and disability sector. The review is set to provide an interim report by 2019 and a final one by 2020. Political exercise or otherwise (one could argue both ways), affirmative action of this nature lends itself to a strong argument against the current health system in New Zealand. Through my readings, the one recurring point surrounds the ‘growing’ and ‘aging’ population. This coupled with rising proportions of obesity, cardiovascular disease, mental health poses a new age challenge to the healthcare system in the very imminent future. Is one solution, incentivising people to take care of their health? Using transferable tokenized reward systems provides people with realistic proactive rewards which might help influence unhealthy choices, thus reducing downstream reactive healthcare interventions.
As per recent OECD data, the current expenditure on health in New Zealand is 9.2% of the GDP. The OECD average stands at 9.0%. The total number of hospital beds per 1000 population in New Zealand is 2.7, while the OECD average stands at 4.7. More than 30% of ordinary New Zealander’s find it difficult to access primary care. This has to change.
Having said that, New Zealand has had lower expenditure on its health care system than most comparable countries for many years (as a percentage of gross domestic product). In comparison, matching the Australian share of national income spent on healthcare would add $996M of extra funding to New Zealand’s system. While these numbers should not be examined in isolation, the truth is that we are overly reliant on hospital care and compounding this challenge is the fact that our hospitals are not very efficient. They are stretched thin, doing the very best they can, given the resources they have.
Every New Zealander must at some point wonder, “surely, there must be a better way to do this!”. This is where technology such as blockchain comes into play. Strategies often talk about people-powered care models but we need to fundamentally shift the emphasis towards technological solutions enabling access to primary care, and workforce development. Once again, put the patient back in the centre and change will come about.
The Digital Health Portfolio is a monthly report providing updates on key New Zealand digital health initiatives. According to the April 2018 portfolio, a business case relating to a National Electronic Health Record (EHR) platform is awaiting cabinet approval. The plan to build a national EHR was first announced in 2015, at which stage it was expected to take 3-5 years. The existing National Health Index and the National Health Provider Index provide solid baseline data to kick start the process. Plus, the groundwork for shared care platforms has been in place for a few years now with agreements between DHBs and private entities.
There is much to be discussed in terms of privacy challenges and interoperability gaps between payers and providers. Use cases in Denmark, Ireland and the UK offer a wealth of information from experiences. For those inspired by the four P’s of healthcare (personalization, preventative, predictive and participation), pertinence is the 5th P. There is a sound case that the appropriate EHR model will add material value to New Zealand’s healthcare delivery system. The momentum surrounding it may however be lost if the business case is delayed. It is imperative that the first step towards this goal is finding a way to build a connection between the existing system with the new distributed ledger offering. A bridge of trust needs to be established. While no technology can be thought of as being a panacea for existing problems, time will reveal the true capabilities of blockchain technology within the healthcare framework.
The positive influence of technology in improving the healthcare service model in recent times is best demonstrated by the melding of robotic assisted surgery into the system. One of New Zealand’s Ministry of Health’s targets for 2017-2018 and beyond is to provide better access to elective surgical care. In August 2017, the country’s first robot assisted knee surgery was carried out at Auckland’s North Shore Hospital. With a 92% rate of patient satisfaction, 36% lower 30-day complication and 66% lower readmission costs, this is the cutting edge of surgery. The prudent leadership demonstrated by the District Health Boards and the brave surgeons who chose to embrace the future, is a seminal example of change for good.
Despite the successes of the healthcare system in New Zealand, the system falls short of achieving substantial health outcome. Not targets, outcomes. Healthcare is in principal risk-averse as an industry. It also involves significant investments and long terms strategies.
The Office of the Privacy Commissioner in New Zealand reported a steady rise in privacy breaches over the past 10 years. At the end of 2008, 16 data breaches were officially reported. By the end of 2015, this number had risen to 121. A bill recently introduced to Parliament hopes to overhaul the 25-year-old privacy legislation currently in place. Submissions on the bill have since been closed and report is due back in Parliament in October 2018. Significant among the recommendations in the bill is mandatory reporting of data breaches.
A noteworthy issue thrown up amidst the kerfuffle surrounding the privacy bill, is the lack of transparency within the system. The outcome is an absolute lack of trust. The healthcare sector operating in New Zealand has over the years, unwittingly relatively restriction free access to personal health information. A downstream effect of such an open-gate approach is the very real threat of privacy breaches. Through the use of self-executing computer programs (smart contracts) and a decentralized blockchain platform, in the future patients will become data vendors, choosing who they divulge their personal information out to.
In early 2000, a discussion document titled “The New Zealand Health Strategy” was published the Ministry of Health. The document, published for consultation with the sector and the wider public outlined the direction of action on health. In relation to the use of technology, the document stated “The ability to exchange high-quality information between partners in health care processes will be vital for a health system focused on achieving better health outcomes. Privacy and confidentiality of personal information must be maintained at all times”. 18 years on, this call to action has never had a louder voice than the present moment. A survey published in June involving 1600 Kiwis revealed that 67% were concerned about their individual privacy, albeit not medical data privacy in particular.
Healthcare organizations in New Zealand, much like most healthcare systems around the world consider patient data as being invaluable. That being said, large volumes of data of this nature lends itself to being used inappropriately. Blockchain has the potential to offer long term solutions. Critics argue that the technology is too cumbersome and complicated for large populations, high computational expenses and government regulations will stifle growth, there aren’t enough incentives in place to attract talent, large health record silos might potentially be difficult to govern and it’s only a matter of time before hackers find their way into the immutable system. These arguments aside, the first step is the creation of a trust-bridge between the incumbent system and the DLT offering. Working in conjunction with the District Health Boards, Private healthcare providers and EHR vendors will allow the best solution generating alternative. Interoperability is critical to prevent the fragmentation of the current system from being replicated. Federated blockchain wherein interoperable systems which run sub-critical transactions (emphasis on speed over security) on the centralized chain system while critical transactions (emphasis on security over speed) are diverted towards the decentralized chains might well be a viable option. Such an arrangement would blend into the existing array of sensors and the IoT landscape to track and measure health parameters, whilst using DLTs to enable healthcare practitioner make actionable decisions. It is time to get back to the drawing board and set change in motion. Sine qua non, or is it just me?
Intiva Health, based in Austin, Texas, addresses this problem with its credentials platform. Based on Swirld Hashgraph, it lets professionals hold credentials from all participating institutions in one place. They’re digitally authenticated, immune to tampering, encrypted, and under the professional’s control.
Licensed medical professionals can sign up for free for an account, which Intiva hopes will quickly build up participation. The whitepaper lists several Planned sources of revenue include sponsored opt-in alerts, referrals, promotional videos, and sales through the Intiva Health Marketplace. To a large extent, it’s the well-known model of free services supported by advertising.
Intiva’s NTVA tokens provide an incentive to use the platform. The platform issues a token reward for every end-user action. Users can spend tokens on goods and services bought through Intiva, as well as on accessing special benefits. The company recently launched a private sale of tokens. They stress that this isn’t an ICO; its purpose is to jump-start the token system, not to bring in investors.
Strictly speaking, Intiva’s platform isn’t blockchain-based. It uses hashgraph, which is a related distributed ledger technology. Like a blockchain, it stores all its data in multiple locations, using digital signing to guarantee authenticity and prevent changes. The differences between hashgraph and blockchain are rather technical. Hashgraph claims quicker resolution and better fault tolerance.
Documents are stored in the hashgraph. They’re encrypted so that only the owner can authorize access to them. For extra security, documents are fragmented over multiple nodes, so that cracking any one node won’t expose a document.
The owner of a document can share it with other parties. Sharing can be on a one-time basis with a limited duration. Individuals can request that their “pertinent metadata” be made available to potential employers; presumably this includes brief descriptions of their specialties and credentials. Providing this information is one of the ways Invita generates income.
Professionals can carry their documents from one job to another. If the platform is durable enough, they will be able to accumulate credentials over their entire careers.
Intiva’s approach avoids the battle for dominance in the medical records market. It’s identified a niche of its own where there is relatively little competition. This niche doesn’t have to achieve as much of a critical mass as blockchain for medical records do. Even if professionals can retrieve only a quarter of their credentials through Intiva, that’s a significant saving in effort compared to the present system.
Granular access control is a complicated issue in any system that stores records in a digital ledger. The information Intiva has provided doesn’t give full details, but it’s clear that they’ve thought about the issue and are working on addressing it.
The biggest barrier to adoption will undoubtedly be technical inertia. Institutions that provide credentials will need to install new software and fit it into their record management systems. To make it useful, they’ll have to convert their existing documents, which may be a challenging task. If a few major medical schools get on board, that would be a big boost to the platform’s credibility.
The potential advantages of Intiva’s platform are clear. Professionals will be able to start new assignments more quickly. Healthcare facilities won’t be kept waiting. That means fewer obstacles to taking care of patients. There are many questions to be answered, but Intiva may be able to answer them all in due course.
The IRYO network uses blockchain technology to make the transferal of medical data less centralized. The network is tackling the problem of medical data being fractured the way it is now. Essentially, under the current system, people go from one doctor to another over the years, and transferring the data about themselves from doctor to doctor can be a real mess.
The Iryo network instead seeks to use the blockchain to organize all of this data instead of having it in incompatible legacy systems housed by private organizations throughout the world. Health records of all patients will then be connected together in a uniform system. Individual patients can easily share their information with any professionals that also use this system no matter where they are in the world.
It will be even possible to specify that the information will only be accessible by that particular organization or individual for a specified amount of time. Access control features will be possible to cut down on the possibility of the information being used in a way that you don’t want since there will be only so much time for this to happen.
The main token that this tech uses is called IRYO. Researchers, hospitals, and other parties will be able to offer these tokens to patients who provide them with information. The tokens will also let individuals easily pay for medical services if they so choose. This creates a positive feedback loop.
The idea will be to eventually make it so the information has a high degree of compatibility with various medical applications running on the Iryo network. Additional objectives are to integrate Iryo with various medical records and zero-knowledge storage systems by 2019.
The ambition will be to eventually have clinics Iryo-certified as being safe and compatible with the service for those who grow to rely on it.
In order to facilitate all of this, the cryptocurrency is even offering discounts in the days leading up to the release. Once it’s up and running the network will be encrypted in such a way that anyone who manages to get access to someone’s medical data will find that this data has no value to them since they can’t read it. This is what’s meant by “zero knowledge.”
Healthureum’s aims include these:
The most distinctive feature of Healthureum’s plan is the integration of payment tokens and healthcare information in the same system. WELL also uses tokens for payment between healthcare providers, but the token system is its primary focus.
Healthureum aims at a strong set of healthcare information features as well as a payment system in a single blockchain. It aims at providing a “complete supporting ecosystem” for providers, not just a method of small-scale payments. A major aim of the token system is to facilitate cross-border services by making payment direct, avoiding international processing fees and currency conversions.
The token is called the Healthureum, abbreviated HHEM. The HHEM will be the exclusive means of payment within the network. A Token Generation Event (TGE) ran in December 2017 to seed the system. It excluded a number of countries, among them the United States, Japan, and China.
Participating patients will have their personal, medical, and emergency data all stored in encrypted form on a single platform. Large data files, such as high-resolution images, would make the blockchain unmanageably large, so they will be stored elsewhere, with access through encrypted links.
The system uses permission layers to control access, so that participants can read only the information that they’re authorized for. It promises instant access, so that the information is available in emergencies. Specialists will be allowed to see a subset of the patient’s data in order to provide a second opinion.
Naturally, patients want to know that the people treating them and getting referrals are qualified. This can be an issue if they have a medical emergency in an unfamiliar place. Healthureum states that it will confirm that all providers in its network are legally qualified. The patient will be able to see a referred doctor’s credentials through the blockchain.
Some features of Healthureum aim at facilitating medical research. Patients who aren’t actively participating in medical trials can contribute their anonymized medical data. When they do this, they’re granting permission only for research purposes. Fraud in medical trials is a concern, since there can be financial incentives to make a treatment appear more successful than it was. Since the blockchain is safe against tampering, it guards against falsification of data.
Where is Healthureum going from here? In 2018, it plans to work with two pilot hospitals to implement and test its standardized data framework. It will test the alpha and beta versions of its data systematization application and gather data and credentials for doctors in the test program.
After making any necessary fixes to the code and confirming regulatory compliance, the program will expand to five hospitals, adding the initial implementation of referrals and consultation. In 2019 it plans to add philanthropic activities and research programs.
The biggest challenge which any healthcare blockchain faces is reaching a critical mass of adoption. To be useful to patients, it has to give them access to a large number of facilities and doctors. Healthureum is staking its hopes on the combination of flexible, secure information and a payment system in the same blockchain. If enough facilities adopt it, it could be a success.
Today’s traditional healthcare setting categorizes a patient’s medical data, storing pieces of it in different departments, and sometimes at satellite locations. Believe it or not, accessing important health information is difficult for your provider, and even they may have to ask another department for permission to release your healthcare results.
Sometimes your physician has to provide supporting medical evidence, expressing why this information will assist them in determining your diagnosis or improving your treatment. And it’s common that patients incur a fee when signing a medical release form requesting their own medical records.
Clearly, providers and patients alike are experiencing difficulty with accessing healthcare information. Slow access in either direction, interferes with the accuracy and speed at which patients receive cost-effective, high-quality health care.
Healthbase aims to provide a solution to our fragmented healthcare information system by using blockchain technology to store, aggregate and secure medical data on one decentralized database, ensuring safe, easy access to all members of the healthcare team, especially patients.
Try to think of the Healthbase network as a triangle and each angle represents a network member: patients (or only your health data), providers, and researchers. The center of the triangle is the operating unit location, or your unique data-driven, “healthbase.“
Medical errors are common; miscalculations, typos and miscommunications happen. Electronic medical records (EMRs) continue to help reduce the rate of medical errors, specifically compared to hand written orders. But slip-ups still occur. When people copy over daily progress notes, they may forget to remove a notation that no longer applies to the patient’s current medical status. Fortunately, several checks and balances are in place. Plus, each executed function inside the EMR, is time-stamped with your healthcare team member’s John Hancock!
It’s common for physicians to remotely check-in from their iPhones or laptop, evaluating their patient’s results from another physical location. When laboratory results or other health metrics seem off, some physicians will make additional phone calls to better understand what’s going on. Other healthcare providers may rely on their experience, making assumptions based upon a composite patient profile picture. All these extra steps take time, confuse other healthcare team members, and ultimately frustrate the patient.
Healthbase seeks to reduce medical errors by using blockchain technology to establish a decentralized “healthbase,” storing each patient’s unique data in one place, instead of it being scattered about in separate silos, improving flow of communication in all directions. The mission: to reduce medical mishaps and improve healthcare research and quality of therapies.
Healthbase tokens are a form of crypto-currency, granting each network member the option to trade or sell their cloaked information for more tokens, fiat currency, data, or goods and services. Crytpo-coins seek to level the playing field, distributing rights and access to patients’ anonymized data sets. Token usage benefits everyone, it’s integration is showing improvement in medical research, and ultimately, therapies. Currently, two German dental medical clinics are evaluating this software for use in their daily practice.
Blockchain technology coupled with data encryption secures your data and your identity; healthbase tokens help you leverage your unique anonymized health data sets against the highest bidder, allowing you to choose which researchers and other third-parties you share your information with.
The beautifully designed, crypto-veil of blockchain technology may drive the information age forward, giving people the power to decide if they want to profit off their own healthcare infographics. In regards to Healthbase, how their tokens are divided amongst patients, providers and researchers remains yet unclear; and distribution parameters may change the degrees of our neatly drawn triangle.
Hyperledger is an open source collaboration involving blockchain developers and big businesses. Hosted by The Linux Foundation, this growing community is pushing the boundaries of blockchain development with a wide range of projects. As you’ve no doubt gathered, blockchain apps are transforming the way in which we deal with data across a wide range of business sectors and the area of healthcare will no doubt benefit greatly from the current developments in this area.
When a user accesses a blockchain ledger, there is no obvious clue that the data is not centrally located. Blockchain gives the illusion of a centralized system, but in reality, the data is distributed across many different locations. This allows for greater collaboration, and all data is synchronized immediately. So a doctor, staff in a hospital, and the patient can all update the data held, yet no one individual can claim ownership of the overall system, be this the hospital or a third party intermediary. Therefore, there is no ultimate reliance on one single system. When all data is located in one place, a failure of that system can be catastrophic, especially in the healthcare business when there are literally lives at stake.
When using blockchain technology, an audit trail is created and cannot be manipulated. This makes it highly reliable. Additionally, a block can only be altered by the owner of that block, and so it is easy to find out with whom particular data originated, and who has changed it. Data can be validated, and so can be reused as a verified reliable source.
Medical records are highly sensitive. When a doctor records data regarding the condition of a patient, it is expected that the data is entirely confidential. While measures are always taken to protect such sensitive information, blockchain adds a very high level of security into the equation. All data is encrypted, and can only be decrypted when a user holds the private key to do so.
It’s not just the storage of patient records that can benefit from these new technologies. Blockchain developers for healthcare are working on many different aspects of the business to implement these technologies across a broad range of areas. For instance, insurance claim processing and research sectors. Insurance claims will be easier to audit, data will be more easily accessible by involved parties and fraud detection will be improved. Claims will therefore go through faster which of course will be of benefit to those who have put in a claim. With a higher level of fraud detection, the number of fraudulent claims will be reduced, and so policy prices could well fall. Data gathering for research will also improve, giving greater opportunities for study and advancement.
Enter Luna DNA, another interesting turn in the healthcare industry.
Luna DNA is “a genomic and medical research database powered by blockchain.” Luna DNA takes a community-based approach to gathering and sharing medical data. Traditional medicine often takes samples and other information while giving little back, a state of affairs heavily criticized for example in The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, where despite having their mother’s cells used throughout modern medicine, the children and other relatives received nothing in return. While medical laws try to protect individuals from unwanted medical procedures and breaches of privacy, these laws can also act against the interests of people, giving no or little incentive to contribute their DNA and medical information. Luna DNA strives to undo this unbalance by giving community members Luna Coins, digital currency, in exchange for sharing their information. This give and take system then entitles recipients to receive assistance information in turn.
Luna DNA has its roots in genomic research, where useful information often depends on a cross-section of samples. Without samples to compare, genomic research quickly becomes irrelevant, even impossible. CEO and Co-Founder Bob Kain and President and Co-Founder Dawn Barry both have roots in Illumina, a global genomics company working in everything from healthcare to agriculture. While working at Illumina and in other industry-related positions, Barry and Kain saw firsthand the benefits of genomics together with the challenges facing researchers and consumers alike. They wanted to find some way to incentivize individuals to share their information, because the more information available, the better the research results. The better the research results, the more consumers should be able to expect in return. Thus, Luna DNA was born.
Cryptocurrency like Bitcoin and Luna DNA’s Luna Coins represent a new way to hold and keep data secure. In the case of Luna Coins, the community invests, members of community hold their coins, and this information is available to all parties, keeping business transparent while keeping each individual member’s information secure. In many ways, a business like Luna DNA is a prime example of when and why cryptocurrency is so important. You want everyone (at least everyone in the community) to help guard your data, so that it will be impossible for someone to counterfeit or change what you have stored in your ledger. At the same time, you want the details including your ownership to be kept private via privileged encryption, so that not just anyone can see the details.
Considering the stated aim of Luna DNA, to hold highly personal information in a shared database where everyone benefits in a mutually understood way, blockchain is the perfect technology partner for this mission. Luna DNA successfully raised $2 million dollars in ICO capital last year. On a practical level as well as a symbolic one, blockchain works for this business.
Looking ahead to the future of Luna DNA, of Luna Coins, and blockchain tech in general, one can see a trend developing, a trend toward decentralized funding and greater community involvement on all levels. As healthcare continues to become more consumer-driven, with secure medical records access online and on-demand, funding and investing will have to evolve keep up. Only time will tell, of course, but savvy companies and savvy investors will do well to pay attention these and other opportunities as they arise. Times are definitely changing.
The interest in Blockchain and distributed ledger technology (DLT)has exploded in recent years with a large focus on the financial industry. Meanwhile, medical and pharmaceutical companies around the world are looking to DLT as a means of solving, securing, and streamlining their businesses. While there are many applications for DLT within the medical industry, one area where the technology excels is within supply chains. With sales ranging from US$163 billion to $217 billion per year, according to industry estimates, counterfeit pharmaceuticals are the most lucrative sector of the global trade in illegally copied goods. Fraudulent drugs harm or kill millions around the world and inflict serious damage on the brand names and bottom lines of major pharmaceutical manufacturers.
A blockchain based system could excel in the instance of protecting consumers against counterfeit pharmaceuticals by encoding a log that would detail each stop within the supply chain. In this instance, consumers would be able to check a digital archive in order to ensure the legitimacy of their medication. The distributed nature of the technology ensures that all actors within the pipeline are not making dubious changes to the log. The Drug Quality and Security Act (DSCSA) is a regulation that requires an electronic, interoperable system to identify and trace prescription drugs distributed in the United States. This law was originally passed in 2013 but won’t take full effect until 2023. Other countries are implementing similar programs. All manufacturers, distributors, and dispensers of prescription drugs in the U.S. market are required to comply.
Blockchain’s immutability and provenance capability provide the basis for tractability of drugs from manufacture to end consumer, identifying where the supply chain breaks down. With the DSCSA regulations looming companies like MediLedger Project and SimplyVital are leading the pack with their healthcare oriented blockchain technologies. MediLedger is a collaboration between Chronicled and The LinkLab, bringing together both pharmaceutical supply chain and blockchain technologies. Their intention is to advance the dialogue of a blockchain utility to enhance pharma companies’ ability to manage their supply chains.
SimplyVital has developed two products for the healthcare industry, both of which address different aspects; ConnectingCare and Health Nexus. ConnectingCare is designed for healthcare providers, such as a hospital. The technology enables customers to streamline data to save time and money. According to Lucas Hendren (Simply Vital’s CTO),“It uses care coordination and financial forecasting to help providers in bundled payments get insight into what happens to patients when they leave the hospital. It is a strategic early use case for blockchain in healthcare because it uses blockchain as an immutable audit trail.” ConnectingCare has already hit with its minimal viable product.
Health Nexus which is another blockchain protocol crafted by Simply Vital is assisting the medical industry and consumer in storing, distributing, and securing medical data. Not only that, but Health Nexus will allow individuals to sell their data to interested 3rd parties through a secure pipeline and marketplace. Blockchain protocols like Health Nexus are likely to play a large in medical research. These protocols will also tighten consumer feedback loops and potentially save lives.
Blockchain has already made an impact in the medical industry, and it’s only looking to gain speed from here. Healthcare Rallies for Blockchain, a study from IBM, found that 56% of surveyed healthcare executives had solid plans to implement a commercial blockchain solution by 2020. As the abilities of machine learning and artificial intelligence further leak into the medical industry, the need for a blockchain solution will increase exponentially.